The European Science Parliament (ESP) is an ongoing discussion forum dealing with current socio-political topics related to science and research. The second ESP Conference is organised in two phases: The first phase is an online discussion of a range of topics via a web portal. The second phase will take place in Aachen, with live participation by those invited to join in a face-to-face discussion on the most interesting points. The topic of the ESP 2010 is “H2O – More than just a drop”.